The Plasma & Space Propulsion Team (EP2)

We are a research group dedicated to the modeling, simulation, design, development, and testing of space plasma thrusters and related subjects. EP2 is part of the Aerospace Engineering Department at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.

Recent news

Open positions

Students/Postdocs positions: 1 vacant PhD positions. Click here for more information. The application deadline is on July 14th 2024, but the position will be filled as soon as a suitable candidate is found.

Administrative positions: currently there are no open positions.

Research lines

Prometeo Project

Prometeo Project

Prometeo Project (PP) is a synergistic project, funded by the Comunidad de Madrid where we address the fundamental challenges of thrusters based on plasmas. To this end, we exploit the synergies between two leading groups of research in the Community of Madrid. On one side we have the Space Propulsion and Plasmas Team (EP2) of UC3M, which works on Electric Space Propulsion (PEE), and on the other side the National Fusion Laboratory (LNF) of CIEMAT, which investigates on plasmas for Nuclear Fusion by Magnetic Confinement (FNMC).

Hall Effect Thruster

Hall Effect thruster

Hall Effect Thrusters (HET) are one of the most mature electric thrusters. They feature an annular geometry, with a magnetic circuit that generates a predominantly radial magnetic field inside the channel. By applying a voltage difference between the two ends of this channel, electrons are forced to follow closed drift orbits, thus ionizing a large amount of neutral atoms, before actually reaching the anode (at the propellant injection side). The reduced axial mobility of the electrons also produces a strong axial electric field that accelerates the ions. Our group has been active in modelling and understanding these thrusters for more than 2 decades, so that we have very advanced simulation tools, with which we plan to design and test a real HET in the near future.

Magnetic Nozzles

Magnetic Nozzles

A magnetic nozzle is a convergent-divergent magnetic field that can be used to channel and accelerate a plasma jet supersonically to generate magnetic thrust. You can learn more about them in this video lecture. Their main advantages over solid nozzles are that they operate contactlessly, so that plasma-wall contact is avoided, and that they can be modified in shape and strenght during flight to gain, for example, thrust vector control capabilities without any moving parts. The DIMAGNO two-fluid code developed during my PhD thesis is a useful simulation tool. Recently, we have patented a 3D magnetic nozzle capable of steering the plasma jet in any direction.


Nanosatellites and Systems Engineering

Nanosatellites are game-changing spacecraft due to their reduced dimensions and cost. They are an affordable to test new technology in space, and to perform short missions of low to medium complexity. The NanoStar project aims to build a network of European universities to design, build, and launch nanosatellites with educational purposes. This line of work requires to have a broad, systems-level view of the nanosatellite, as well as a specialist understanding of the different subsystems of the spacecraft.

Helicon Plasma thruster

Helicon plasma thruster

Helicon plasma thrusters (HPT) consist of a cylindrical plasma source where a neutral gas is ionized and heated using helicon waves, and a magnetic nozzle where the plasma is accelerated into a high velocity jet. They are robust and simple, as they do not have any naked electrodes in contact with the plasma. We model and simulate the plasma transport inside the helicon source and the plasma-wave interaction with the in-house HELFLU and HELWAVE codes. Recently, we have developed the HPT-05 prototype in collaboration with SENER Ingeneriería y Sistemas.

Plasma plumes and plasma-spacecraft interaction

Plasma plumes and plasma-spacecraft interaction

The operation of a plasma thruster creates an energetic plasma plume that expands into space. The peripheral part of this plume can contaminate and erode the exposed elements of the spacecraft, and affect its electrical charging state. These phenomena can become a serious issue in modern telecommunication satellites. Our two-fluid EASYPLUME code and the 3D hybrid PIC/FLUID EP2PLUS code have been developed to study plasma plumes and their interaction with the environment.

Plasma waves and ECR thruster

Plasma waves and ECR thruster

Electromagnetic waves behave very differently in a plasma compared to vacuum—many different types of waves can exist depending on their frequency, the plasma density, and the background magnetic field. Analogously to the helicon waves in the helicon plasma thruster, the electron-cyclotron resonance is an efficient heating mechanism that has been proposed for the design of a new type of plasma thruster—the ECR plasma thruster. In the frame of the H2020 MINOTOR project our group will develop a complete simulation framework for all the key processes in this device; the simulation of the plasma-wave phenomena has some synergies in both thrusters.

Faraday cup

Plasma diagnostics

In order to characterize experimentally the plasma of electric propulsion devices, it is necessary to develop precise plasma diagnostic tools. The EP2 group is active in both modelling and testing (experimentally) of Langmuir probes, emissive probes, Faraday cups, magnetic field sensors, thrust balances, etc...

Active space debris removal

Active space debris removal

After more than 50 years of space operations, we have rendered our Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and Geostationary orbit (GEO) full of dead satellites, fragments, and upper stages. Dramatic collisional events have already taken place, and quite often the International Space Station (ISS) must perform debris-avoidance maneuvers to avoid a potential threat. In the FP7 LEOSWEEP project, we have studied an innovative means to tackle the space debris problem—the Ion Beam Shepherd (IBS). In this concept, a plasma plume is used to push contactlessly and efficiently a piece of debris to force its reentry into the atmosphere.


EP2 also participates in ST3LLAR, the joint Space Technology Research Laboratory of SENER Aeroespacial and UC3M.

Research projects

Cheops-low and Cheops-medium Projects

CHEOPS: Consortium for Hall Effect Orbital Propulsion System – Phase 2 covering LOW POWER and MEDIUM POWER needs (2021-2024)

H2020 Programme (European Commission). Grant number: 101004331. Principal Investigator: Pablo Fajardo, Eduardo Ahedo. Project Manager: SAFRAN-Snecma (France).


Below you can find and download an updated list of the EP2 group journal publications, conference papers and doctoral theses. In compliance with the European Commission regulations, all EP2 scientific publications can be accessed through the institutional  UC3M e-Archive (green open access)

Peer-reviewed publications

Selected conference papers

PhD theses

ExB Plasmas Workshop

The International ExB Plasmas Workshop brings together researchers and experts from the plasma physics community to discuss the latest developments in plasma physics, plasma turbulence, and plasma anomalous transport. The last edition of the workshop took place online in February 16-18, 2022. The organizers of this edition of the workshop were the Equipo de Propulsión Espacial y Plasmas (EP2) research team at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.

ExB Plasmas Workshop


The EP2 group carries out advanced electric thruster research in a dedicated space plasma laboratory.

Our main vacuum chamber, of 1.5 m diameter and 3.5 m longitude, is equipped with the latest technology in terms of vacuum sensors and pumps and used to test electric propulsion prototypes and related technologies. A set of cryopanels and turbomolecular pumps provide more than 35000 l/s combined pumping velocity on Xe or Ar in an oil-free environment. We are currently developing and modeling different types of plasma probes, an automated 3D scanning system, and optical spectroscopy diagnostic techniques to support our experimental activities.

Plasma diagnostics and EP laboratory

Simulation tools

The EP2 group has developed, through its years of activity, a large suite of numerical simulation tools, that are detailed below.

Plasma plume neutralization


EP2PLUS (Extensible Parallel Plasma PLUme Simulator) is 3D hybrid PIC/fluid code, which treats the heavy particles (ions and neutrals) as macro-particles of a PIC sub-model, and the electrons as a fluid. A first version of the code has been developed during the LEOSWEEP project, but coding to add new simulation capabilities is an ongoing activity. Its main application is the study of the plasma plume expansion and neutralization into vacuum, and its interaction with the emitting satellite, or with any downstream object (as in the scenario of the ion beam shepherd technique).

Plasma plume density profile


EASYPLUME is a set of Matlab codes which enable a quick assessment of the properties of a plasma plume expanding rapidly into vacuum. Based on the Self-Similar and the Asymptotic Expansion methods, the codes are axisymmetric and have been used successfully in parametric studies like those of the electric propulsion subsystem optimization for an ion beam shepherd S/C (IBS). Such a study, in fact, required a fast estimation of plasma plume properties for a large set of initial conditions (radial profiles, initial divergence angle, electron temperature at the thruster exit, etc...)



DIMAGNO DIMAGNO is a two-fluid code for the simulation of DIvergent MAgnetic NOzzles for next generation plasma thrusters (Helicon Plasma Thruster, Electron-Ciclotron Plasma Thruster, Applied-Field MPD thruster, VASIMR, etc). It uses the method of characteristics to integrate the supersonic ion equations. The full version of DIMAGNO was developed since 2009 by Mario Merino and Eduardo Ahedo, and has been used extensively to research the operation and the physics of the plasma flow in a magnetic nozzle. The full description of the model can be found in E. Ahedo and M. Merino, "Two-dimensional supersonic plasma acceleration in a magnetic nozzle", Physics of Plasmas 17, 073501 (2010).

HET plasma discharge with magnetic field lines


HYPHEN (HYbrid Plasma-thruster Holistic-simulation ENvironment) is a full 2D(r-z) hybrid PIC-Fluid code, capable of simulating time-resolved plasma discharges under the influence of magnetic fields. The plasma regime studied is characterized by the weak collisionality of the heavy-species populations, the strong magnetization of the electron population and a negligible self-field production by the plasma current. The characterization and partial validation of HYPHEN has been initially performed through the simulation of ion thruster plasma plumes, with ongoing efforts being centered on the simulation of complex Hall Effect Thruster discharges.



Akiles2D (Advanced Kinetic Iterative pLasma Expansion Solver 2D) is the Matlab implementation of the kinetic plasma plume model described in M. Merino et al., "Kinetic electron model for plasma thruster plumes," Plasma Sources Science and Technology 27, 035013 (2018). The code allows to compute the electric potential and the electron distribution function in a paraxial, collisonless plume and compute any moment of the distribution function. The name Akiles2D stands for "Advanced Kinetic Iterative pLasma Expansion Solver 2D." The first version of this code has been funded by ESA under contract 4000116180/15/NL/PS. It has been developed by Mario Merino and Javier Mauriño, the latter during a research visit to the EP2 group at UC3M, funded by a UK Royal Academy of Engineering Engineering Leaders Scholarship (ELAA1516/1/87). Akiles2d solves iteratively for the electric potential and the EVDF weight in a paraxial, unmagnetized, steady-state plasma plume to satisfy quasineutrality and a global condition on the net electric current. It can be readily used for magnetized plumes in magnetic nozzles as well. After successful convergence to the self-consistent solution, the Akiles2d c omputes the most frequently used moments of the ion and electron distribution functions. Currently, only the radially-parabolic electric potential and the semi-Maxwellian electron distribution upstream are implemented, but the code is structured to allow easy extension to other cases.


The EP2 team in September 2023

PhD researchers

Eduardo Ahedo

Eduardo Ahedo (Full Professor)

Research lines: Modeling and simulation of plasma propulsion technologies: Hall effect thrusters, ion thrusters, electrodeless plasma thrusters and magnetic nozzles. Plasma plumes: expansion and interaction with objects. Basic phenomena: instabilities, kinetic description, wall interaction.

Mario Merino

Mario Merino (Full Professor)

Research lines: Magnetized and un-magnetized plasma jet expansions, magnetic nozzles, plasma-wave interactions, and space debris active removal

Pablo Fajardo

Pablo Fajardo (Full Professor)

Research lines: Hall effect thrusters, hybrid PIC-fluid simulations, experimental characterization of plasma thrusters, plasma diagnostics, design of electric propulsion systems, fluid modeling

Jaume Navarro

Jaume Navarro Cavallé (Associate Professor)

Research lines: Development and validation of plasma thrusters (Helicon, ECR, Hall). Design of plasma diagnostics

Adrian Domínguez

Adrián Domínguez Vázquez (Collaborating Professor)

Research lines: Full-PIC and hybrid PIC/fluid modeling and simulation of Hall Effect Thrusters and plasma plumes

Jiewei Zhou

Jiewei Zhou (Margarita Salas Fellow)

Research lines: Helicon plasma thrusters, hybrid PIC-fluid simulations, magnetized plasmas plumes

Pedro Jiménez

Pedro Jiménez Jiménez (Postdoctoral Researcher)

Research lines: Plasma-wave interaction, computational electrodynamics, Helicon and ECR plasma thrusters

PhD students

Scherezade Barquero Balsera (PhD student)

Research lines: Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT) modeling, design and testing

Jesús Perales Díaz

Jesús Perales Díaz (PhD student Early Career Researcher of the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)

Research lines: Ion Optics, Hall Effect Thruster, Full PIC and hybrid PIC/fluid modelling

Enrique Bello Benítez

Enrique Bello Benítez (PhD student of the Spain's FPU scholarship program)

Research lines: Plasma instabilities, anomalous electron transport in Hall effect thrusters, existence and stability of solitary waves

Marco Riccardo Inchingolo

Marco Riccardo Inchingolo (PhD student)

Research lines: Design and testing of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma thruster, plasma diagnostics

Tatiana Perrotin

Tatiana Perrotin (PhD student)

Research lines: Design and test of a low power Hall thruster, plasma diagnostics and hollow cathodes

Alberto Marín

Alberto Marín Cebrián (PhD student of the Spain's FPU scholarship program)

Research lines: Hall effect thrusters, full PIC simulations and plasma-wall interaction

Davide Maddaloni

Davide Maddaloni (PhD student)

Research lines: Modal data analysis of experimental and simulation data, fast plasma diagnostics

Alberto Modesti

Alberto Modesti (PhD student)

Research lines: Hall effect thrusters, hybrid PIC-fluid simulations of magnetized plasma plumes in laboratory and free space

Célian Boyé

Célian Boyé (PhD student)

Research lines: Electrodeless Plasma Thruster design and testing.

Diego García Lahuerta

Diego García Lahuerta (PhD student)

Research lines: Development of Multi-fluid models and codes.

Francisco de Borja de Saavedra Garcia del Río

Francisco de Borja de Saavedra Garcia del Río (PhD student)

Research lines: Electrospray thrusters, concurrent mission analysis, performance characterization with direct diagnostics.

David Villegas Prados

David Villegas Prados (PhD student)

Research lines: Electrospray thrusters, indirect diagnostics.

Victor Gómez García

Victor Gómez García (PhD student)

Research lines: Helicon Plasma Thruster.

Borja Bayón Buján

Borja Bayón Buján (MSc student)

Research lines: Data driven analysis, machine learning applied to plasma space propulsion.

Matteo Guaita

Matteo Guaita (PhD student)

Research lines: Hybrid PIC/fluid modelling of electron thermodynamics in plasma plumes

Davide Poli

Davide Poli (PhD student)

Research lines: Advanced 2D Fluid Modelling of Hall effect Thruster discharges

Matteo Ripoli

Matteo Ripoli (PhD student)

Research lines: Plasma waves and instabilities in magnetic nozzles

Andrés Rabuñal Gayo

Andrés Rabuñal Gayo (MSc student)

Research lines: Solar wind, experimental physics and plasma-magnetic field interactions

Simone Dalle Fabbriche

Simone Dalle Fabbriche (PhD student)

Research lines: Ion optics and plasma discharge in a radiofrequency ion thruster

Guillermo Cuerva Lazaro

Guillermo Cuerva Lazaro (PhD student)

Research lines: Hall effect thrusters, full PIC simulations, plasma instabilities and anomalous electron transport in Hall effect thrusters


Filippo Cichocki

Filippo Cichocki

PhD thesis: Analysis of the expansion of a plasma thruster plume into vacuum.

Daniel Pérez Grande

Daniel Pérez Grande

PhD Thesis: Fluid modeling and simulation of the electron population in Hall Effect Thrusters with complex magnetic topologies

Sara Correyero

Sara Correyero

PhD Thesis: Physics of plasma plumes accelerated by magnetic nozzles: an experimental and theoretical research

Álvaro Sánchez Villar

Álvaro Sánchez Villar

PhD Thesis: Modeling the plasma discharge in an electron cyclotron resonance thruster

Mick Wijnen

Mick Wijnen

PhD Thesis: Diagnostic Methods for the Characterizatión of a Helicon Plasma Thruster


Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Avda. de la Universidad 30
28911 Leganés (Madrid) Spain
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